For several years, heaters of the infrared type, so popular today, have become a product that is available to almost everyone. They produce these devices in many countries of Europe, as well as in China and Russia. Buying a heater, of course, I want it not to break down and for many years rejoice with warmth. We will try to find out where and how to choose infrared heaters, based on their structural features. To do this, let us consider in detail how the devices are arranged and how these devices work, as well as the criteria for their selection. Features of the design and operation principle of an infrared heater. These devices differ radically from convectors - they do not warm the air at all, but objects in the room, including the floor and walls. In general, an infrared heater can be compared to a roomy sun - its radiation, like sunlight, permeates the air, absolutely not warming it. But as soon as the beam reaches the object, the light does not pass, it immediately absorbs, naturally, while heating.
Infrared waves have a long length - they are perceived by our skin as heat emanating from the sun`s rays. We feel it, but we can not see it ever. And these rays warm us irrespective of winds and drafts - they are absolutely not a hindrance. Similarly, drafts and infrared heaters used in everyday life are not afraid because the wavelength of their radiation is similar to the wavelength of the infrared spectrum of the Sun. In the case of infrared heaters, it`s different - we begin to feel the heat from them immediately after switching on the device, but the heat is not felt in the whole room, but locally, ie, only in the place where radiation occurs.
No convector can heat the room instantly - in fact, during its operation, there is a constant movement of warm air upwards. That is, first of all, the space in the ceiling area is heated, and we are at the bottom, and while the air masses (warm and cold) mix, it takes a long time. That`s all this time to freeze, waiting for a comfortable temperature in the room. There are no particularly clever elements inside the device. In a steel casing, which has a strong powder paint, there is a reflector made of aluminum. On this reflector is installed the main element of the construction - heating. There are 4 varieties of these elements: halogen, carbon, ceramic and tubular (it is called a ten).
Also in each infrared heater there is a thermostat for temperature regulation and a sensor that switches off the device when it overheats. If the device is intended for installation on the floor, it must also be equipped with a rollover sensor.
Tips for choosing an infrared heater
Execution - ceiling, wall or floor? So, how to choose IR heaters for the home and which performance will be preferable? This depends on the size of the room and the conditions of use of the device. To begin with, we determine whether we need a stationary device, or the device is supposed to move from room to room. Mobile heaters are smaller in size and have little power, while stationary heaters are wall, ceiling and skirting.
In general, the most convenient type of devices are ceiling IR heaters. They do not take too much space, and the range of their radiation is very extensive. There are models mounted in the false ceiling - recessed, and there are also those that are fixed to the ceiling with special brackets - hanging. The distance to the surface of the case from the ceiling is about 5 centimeters. Low-power and not so effective floor-type heaters meet more obstacles on the way of their radiation than ceiling ones. If you choose from them, it is better to stay on the model with a carbon or tubular heating element. The ceramic heater does not serve for so long, therefore it is not very suitable. A halogen heating element that emits short waves that can have a negative effect on a person and is completely inadmissible to use, since long-wave radiation is necessary for the normal operation of this device.
Heaters mounted on the wall should have some distance from the floor surface. If there are children in the family, the height of the heater installation is such that the children do not reach the working appliance. If you want to put the heater under the window, choose a model with a skirting design - it fits perfectly under the window opening.
A little about the wavelength and heating temperature
Heating elements located inside IR heaters can have different lengths of radiated waves and different heating temperatures. They are as follows:
Radiators emitting long waves (ranging from 5.6 to 100 microns). Their operating temperature ranges from 100 to 600 degrees, they can be used in homes, offices and industrial premises, the ceilings in which are not more than three meters. However, the apartment has enough heater with a working temperature of up to 120 degrees. Average waves (with a length of 2.5 to 5.6 microns) emit heating elements, basking stronger - from 600 to 1000 degrees. In this case, the ceiling in the room should be from 3 to 6 meters. It can be, for example, a private house or an office building.
Short waves (from 0.74 to 2.5 microns) emit heating elements operating at a temperature of 100 degrees. There is already the required ceiling height - from 6 to 8 meters. Such ceilings can be in the factory or factory floor. In addition, heaters of this type can also be used outdoors. At home, we do not recommend using them.
Select the type of heating element
Determining which infrared heater to choose, it must be borne in mind that they are different, primarily over the shell, into which the element radiating waves is placed. The shell can be made of metal, ceramic or quartz.
Halogen heating element - is a halogen lamp that emits in the infrared range. Inside the lamp there is a filament made of tungsten or carbon fiber. When the filament is heated, the infrared energy is released and transferred to the lamp tube. All halogen lamps emit golden light, which can irritate the eyes, to combat this, some manufacturers cover the lamp with a special compound. But the main disadvantage of this heating element is that the halogen heating element emits short waves, and they can have a negative effect on the person. Therefore, in our opinion it is better to abandon the IR heaters equipped with such a heating element. Carbon heater element - is made in the form of a tube of quartz. Inside, it has a vacuum, in which there is a carbon (carbon) spiral. Advantages of this element are very fast heating, as well as the fact that its efficiency exceeds the efficiency of the heated metal plate. However, there are drawbacks: they serve approximately two years, and they consume a lot of electricity - from one to two and a half kilowatts. They also glow with a reddish light, irritating the eyes. Also, they should not be used by asthmatics and allergies. In short, this type of heater is only suitable for short-term use - it is harmful to use them for a long time. The heating element with a ceramic shell is perfectly protected, therefore it does not glow during operation. And such an element serves not less than three years, but its price is higher than that of a quartz one. But it is quite economical, and its range of power consumption is from 50 to 2000 watts. This difference is due to structural features. Despite the fact that such heating elements do not heat up very quickly and cool down, they are often used in medical institutions and in saunas, because they are very strong Tubular (mikatermichesky) element from metal reminds on a design an element from ceramics, but costs more expensively. Such heaters work well, they are quite reliable and convenient in everyday life. If you do not get annoyed by a slight crackle during work, then you can choose to use a similar device. And it is cracking because the coefficients of temperature expansion of the steel spiral and the aluminum body are different. Nothing wrong with that. When choosing a heater of this type, check what characteristics the tan, radiator, housing, foil and insulator have.
Questions to ask when buying an infrared heater:
When deciding how to choose the right infrared heater, first of all, it is necessary to inquire what thickness the anodizing layer has on the plate emitting infrared waves. If it has a thickness of not less than 25 microns, then successful work for 20 years is ensured. If this layer is thinner, then after three years the heater will have to say goodbye - it will burn. It is a pity that this parameter can not be visually checked - when buying a device, one must rely only on the honesty of the seller.
The material of the heating element is also important. If it is black metal, then where it is wet (for example, in a bathroom or sauna), the heater can not be used. If stainless steel is used, it is much better.
The thickness of the radiator foil should be at least 120 microns. If the foil is thinner, then, instead of heating the room, the rays will be wasted for heating the ceiling. Check the thickness of the foil simply - press on it with the rod of a ballpoint pen. If the foil is broken or perforated, then it is not very high quality, not thicker than 100 microns. And at 120 microns, the hole can not be made. Which power is optimal for IR heater
The 10 square meters of the room, as a rule, requires a power of 1 kilowatt (1000 watts). But it is better to buy a heater with a power reserve (especially if there are no other heat sources). After all, we have to take into account the loss of heat through walls, floors and windows. When the heater is used as a supplement to the existing heating system, the power is calculated in relation to the conditions of its operation. Here, too, one must keep in mind heat loss.